Available in English, Spanish and German, with other languages coming.
Why don't many people fight or yell when they're being raped?
Why are memories of sexual assault so often fragmentary and confusing?
Is the brain’s response to attack essentially the same – controlled by the circuitry of fear, running on reflexes and habits – during sexual assault, physical assault, and military combat?
What are the implications of the answers to those questions – for people who've been sexually assaulted, for those who investigate and prosecute such crimes, and for everyone else who encounters or knows someone who's been sexually assaulted?
These are questions I spend a lot of time answering these days as a consultant and trainer.
Here I provide answers, with links to my writings in the popular media, videos of me training and answering questions about sexual assault, and handouts with guidance for police officers, victim advocates and others who interview and work with people who have been sexually assaulted.
The answers, it turns out, are the same in every culture. Everywhere people live around the world, the most common responses of sexual assault victims are basically the same.
Evolution programmed these responses into our brains long before we were sophisticated enough to create cultures, and long before we began to misunderstand and misjudge victims with culture-based expectations of how women and men “should” respond while being sexually assaulted and “should” remember such experiences.
Because the experiences, behaviors, and memories of sexual assault victims are essentially the same in every culture, and thanks to the help of colleagues around the world, I am providing answers to these questions in other languages, with translations of articles that I originally published in English in the United States.
Why Many Rape Victims Don't Fight or Yell
Published in June 2015, this brief essay explains basic brain responses to being attacked, including sexually. It also has links to key scientific review articles on the brain bases and evolutionary origins of commonly misunderstood effects of the fear circuitry taking over: impairment of the prefrontal cortex, survival reflexes (e.g., freezing, tonic immobility) and ineffective habit behaviors.
Why Rape and Trauma Victims Have Fragmented and Incomplete Memories
This brief essay, written with David Lisak, explains how fear and trauma, including in the midst of a sexual assault, shape how memories are encoded, and thus how we should expect the memories to be later, when the victim is trying to recall what happened with investigators, school administrators, family and friends. Understanding these basics can be very helpful to everyone involved, including by decreasing victims' shame and self-doubt about fragmentary and incomplete memories.
Neurobiology of Trauma & Sexual Assault
In this 2-hour YouTube video, I present on the impacts of sexual assault on the brain shape the victim's experience, behavior and memories. It includes the PowerPoint slides and embedded videos that illustrate key impacts (e.g., reflexive survival responses). This is what I present on the most and gets rave reviews from civilian and military police, attorneys and victim advocates, higher education administrators, etc.
Neurobiology of Sexual Assault: 2-Part Webinar Series
In these two 90-minute webinars, I talk viewers through the slides and videos in Part 1: Experience and Behavior, and Part 2: Experience and Memory. I cover the same material as my YouTube video but in greater depth, especially on memory issues. Presented in September 2016, these webinars are available for free in EVAWI’s webinar archive. (There is a quick and simple registration process, so EVAWI can track who is accessing the materials and report to their funding agency.) See also the "Neurobiology of Trauma" FAQ I wrote for EVAWI, below.
Neurobiology of Trauma FAQ
I wrote this FAQ to accompany the two-part webinar series on this topic (see above). It has answers to 16 common questions covering a variety of issues that are sometimes sources of confusion.
Handout for Victim Advocates
This provides options for answering sexual assault victims' common questions with brain-based explanations, which can increase understanding and reduce shame and self-blame. Before using this handout, watch my YouTube video, "Neurobiology of Trauma and Sexual Assault" (see above).
Handout for Interviewers
This provides detailed information for those conducting investigative interviews with people reporting sexual assault. It includes sections on brain-based effects on memories, fundamental interviewing principles, and techniques for improving interviews and the evidence collected. Before using this watch my YouTube video, "Neurobiology of Trauma and Sexual Assault" (see above).
For information about having me provide a presentation or training, see Professional Services or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org and include "training" in the subject line.