Child Abuse > Sexual Abuse of Boys
If you need immediate information you can call one of these 24-hour toll-free hotlines.
- Rape Abuse & Incest National Network
- Childhelp USA
- National Domestic Violence/Abuse Hotline
This page has links to other organizations and websites, as well as to articles, chapters and books by researchers and therapists.
It also includes links to the websites of two excellent documentary films and a couple of leaders in this work.
There are many other resources on my site that could be helpful to men who experienced unwanted or abusive sexual experiences as boys, and people who care about them.
Organizations & Websites
1in6 - Their mission: To help men who have experienced sexual abuse or assault in childhood live healthier, happier lives. Their website has lots of information for men who’ve had such experiences and people who care about them. (During my time with 1in6, I wrote most of the pages on the site.)
Living Well is a great Australian organization and website that, like 1in6.org, has lots of information for men sexually abused as boys and for people who care about them.
MaleSurvivor - Their mission: “We are committed to preventing, healing, and eliminating all forms of sexual victimization of boys and men through treatment, research, education, advocacy, and activism.” Their site has many helpful resources, including A Consumers Guide To Therapist Shopping, and the organization offers Weekends and Days of Recovery several times a year.
Boys and Men Healing is Kathy Barbini’s amazing documentary film, which in my opinion (and many others’) is the best on this issue.
Stories of Silence: Recovering from Boyhood Sexual Abuse is Ethan Delavan’s powerful documentary.
British Columbia Society for Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse - Their mission is providing “therapeutic services for males who have been sexually abused at some time in their lives.” This includes direct services to men and their significant others; providing training to help establish new agencies for men with histories of sexual abuse in British Columbia; and consulting with community and government groups on prevention, treatment, therapy, and other matters relating to sexual abuse of males.
The Next Step Counseling and Training, and Small Wonder Books - This is the website of Mike Lew, M.Ed. and Thom Harrigan, LICSW, and includes information about their center in Newton, Massachusetts, workshops for that they offer around the world, and Lew’s most recent book, Leaping upon the mountains: Men proclaiming victory over child sexual abuse. Lew is also the author of Victims No Longer, considered by many to be the best book ever written about and for men sexually abused as boys.
Richard Gartner, Ph.D. has written books and articles on the sexual abuse of males and their treatment in therapy, and is past president of MaleSurvivor. His web site has many resources, including writings and testimony by Gartner on a variety of issues relevant to males with histories of sexual abuse.
Just Detention International (JDI) is a human rights organization that seeks to end sexual abuse in all forms of detention. Their site has many informative and educational documents on prison rape, including an extensive publications section.
References to Cited Research
The references below are for articles, chapters and books cited on other pages of this section, Sexual Abuse of Boys. This is not a comprehensive and up-to-date reference list, but rather a list from when I first created this page, years ago.
Bagley, C. (1991). The prevalence and mental health sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of women aged 18 to 27. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 10, 103-116.
Bagley, C., Wood, M., & Young, L. (1994). Victim to abuser: Mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 683-697.
Baker, A. W. & Duncan, S. P. (1985). Child sexual abuse: A study of prevalence in Great Britain. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 457-467.
Bauserman, R. & Rind, B. (1997). Psychological correlates of male child and adolescent sexual experiences with adults: A review of the nonclinical literature. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 105-141.
Belkin, D. S., Greene, A. F., Rodrique, J. R., & Boggs, S. R. (1994). Psychopathology and history of sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 535-547.
Berendzen, R, & Palmer, L. (1993). Come here: A man overcomes the tragic aftermath of childhood sexual abuse. New York: Villard Books.
Black, C. A. & DeBlassie, R. R. (1993). Sexual abuse in male children and adolescents: Indicators, effects, and treatments. Adolescence, 28, 123-133.
Blanchard, G. (1986). Male victims of child sexual abuse: A portent of things to come. Journal of Independent Social Work, 1, 19-27.
Bolton, F. G. (1989). Males at risk: The other side of sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Briere, J., & Zaidi, L. J. (1988). Sexual abuse histories and sequelae in female psychiatric emergency Room patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1602-1606.
Brannon, J. M., Larson, B., & Doggett, M. (1989). The extent and origins of sexual molestation and abuse among incarcerated adolescent males. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 33, 161-172.
Briere, J., Evans, D., Runtz, M., & Wall, T. (1988). Symptomatology in men who were molested as children: A comparison study. American Journal of Ortho-psychiatry, 58, 457-461.
Briggs, F. & Hawkins, R. M. F. (1996). A comparison of the childhood experiences of convicted male child molesters and men who were sexually abused in childhood and claimed to be nonoffenders. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 221-233.
Bruckner, D. F. & Johnson, P. E. (1987). Treatment for adult male victims of childhood sexual abuse. Social Casework, 68, 81-87.
Collings, S. J. (1995). The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1-6.
Chandy, J. M., Blum, R. W., Resnick, M. D. (1996). Gender-specific outcomes for sexually abused adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 2019-1231.
de Milly, W. (2000). In my father’s arms: A true story of incest. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
DeJong, A. R., Emmett, G. A., & Hervada, A. A. (1982). Epidemiologic factors in sexual abuse of boys. American Journal of the Diseases of Children, 136, 990-993.
Dimock, P. T. (1988). Adult males sexually abused as children: Characteristics and implications for treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 203-216.
Dube, S. R., et al. (2005). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 430-438.
Ellerstein, N. S., & Canavan, J. W. (1980). Sexual abuse of boys. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134, 255-257.
Estrada, H. (1994). Recovery for male victims of child sexual abuse. Santa Fe: Red Rabbit Press.
Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press.
Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.
Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G., Lewis, I. A., Smith, C. (1990). Sexual abuse in a national survey of adult men and women: Prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 19-28.
Freeman-Longo, R. E. (1986). The impact of sexual victimization on males. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10, 411-414.
Friedrich, W. N., Berliner, L., Urquiza, A. J., & Beilke, R. L. (1988). Brief diagnostic group treatment of sexually abused boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 331-343.
Fritz, G. S., Stoll, K., & Wagner, N. A. (1981). A comparison of males and females who were sexually abused as children. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 7, 4-59.
Fromuth, M. E. & Burkhart, B. R. (1989). Long-term psychological correlates of childhood sexual abuse in two samples of college men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 533-542.
Fromuth, M. E. & Burkhart, B. R. (1987). Childhood sexual victimization among college men: Definitional and methodological issues. Victims and Violence, 2, 241-253.
Gartner, R. B. (2001). Betrayed as boys: Psychodynamic treatment of sexually abused men. New York: Guilford Press.
Gartner, R. B. (2005). Beyond betrayal: Taking charge of your life after boyhood sexual abuse. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Gilgun, J. & Reiser, E. (1990). The development of sexual identity among men sexually abused as children. Families in Society, 71, 515-521.
Gold, S. N., Elhai, J. D., Lucenko, B. A., Swingle, J. M., Hughes, D. M. (1998). Abuse characteristics among childhood sexual abuse survivors in therapy: A gender comparison. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 1005-1012.
Harrison, D. & Sheffer, S. (2005). In a dark time: A prisoner’s struggle for healing and change. Amherst, MA: Stone Lion Press.
Haskett, M. E., Marziano, B., & Dover, E. R. (1996). Absence of males in maltreatment research: A survey of recent literature. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 1175-1182.
Hepburn, J. M. (1994). The implications of contemporary feminist theories of development for the treatment of male victims of sexual abuse. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 3, 1-18.
Hillary, B. E. & Schare, M. L. (1993). Sexually and physically abused adolescents: An empirical search for PTSD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 161-165.
Holmes, G.R., Offen, L., Waller, G. (1997). See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil: Why do relatively few male victims of childhood sexual abuse receive help for abuse-related issues in adulthood? Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 69-88.
Holmes, W. C., Slap, G. B. (1998). Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae, and management. JAMA, 280(21), 1855-1162.
Hunter, J. A. (1991). A comparison of the psychosocial adjustment of adult males and females sexually molested as children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 205-217.
Hunter, M. (1990). Abused boys: The neglected victims of sexual abuse. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
Hunter, M. (Ed.) (1990). The sexually abused male: Prevalence, impact, and treatment. Vol. 1. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Hunter, M. (Ed.) (1996). The sexually abused male: Application of treatment strategies. Vol. 2. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Johnson, R. L. & Shrier, D. (1987). Past sexual victimization by females of males in an adolescent medicine clinic population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 650-652.
Kendall-Tackett, K. A. & Simon, A. F. (1992). A comparison of the abuse experiences of male and female adults molested as children. Journal of Family Violence, 7, 57-62.
King, N. (1995). Speaking our truth: Voices of courage and healing for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse. San Francisco: Harpercollins.
Kinzl, J. F., Mangweth, B., Traweger, C., Biebl, W. (1996). Sexual dysfunction in males: Significance of adverse childhood experiences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 759-766.
Krug, R. S. (1989). Adult male reports of childhood sexual abuse by mothers: Case descriptions, motivations and long-term consequences. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 111-119.
Kuhn, J. (2000). In cabin six: An anthology of poetry by male survivors of sexual abuse. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishing
Lawson, C. (1993). Mother-son sexual abuse: Rare or underreported? A critique of the research. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 261-269.
Levesque, R. J. R. (1994). Sex differences in the experience of child sexual victimization. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 357-369.
Lew, M. (1988). Victims no longer: Men recovering from incest and other child sexual abuse. New York: Nevraumont.
Lew, M., & Hoffman, R. (2000). Leaping upon the mountains: Men proclaiming victory over sexual child abuse. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts: Small Wonder Books.
Lisak, D. (1994). The psychological impact of sexual abuse: Content analysis of interviews with male survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 525-548.
Lisak, D., Hopper, J., & Song, P. (1996). Factors in the cycle of violence: Gender rigidity and emotional constriction. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 721-743.
Lisak, D. & Luster, L. (1994). Educational, occupational, and relationship histories of men who were sexually and/or physically abused as children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 507-523.
Mendel, M. P. (1990). The male survivor: The impact of sexual abuse. London: Sage.
Metcalfe, M., Oppenheimer, R., Dignon, A., & Palmer, R.L. (1990). Childhood sexual experiences reported by male psychiatric patients. Psychological Medicine, 20, 925-929.
Mezey, G. C., & King, M. B. (Eds.) (1992). Male victims of sexual assault. New York: Oxford University Press.
Myers, M. F. (1989). Men sexually assaulted as adults and sexually abused as boys. 13th Annual Canadian Sex Research Forum Conference (1986, Vancouver, Canada). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 203-215.
Nasjleti, M. (1980). Suffering in silence: The male incest victim. Child Welfare, 59, 269-275.
Olson, P. E. (1990). The sexual abuse of boys: A study of the long-term psychological effects. In M. Hunter (Ed.), The sexually abused male: Vol. 1. Prevalence, impact and treatment (pp.137-152). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Peters, D. K. & Range, L. M. (1995). Childhood sexual abuse and current suicidality in college women and men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 335-341.
Pierce, R. & Pierce, L. H. (1985). The sexually abused child: A comparison of male and female victims. Special Issue: C. Henry Kempe memorial research issue. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 191-199.
Risin, L. I. & Koss, M. P. (1987). The sexual abuse of boys: Prevalence and descriptive characteristics of childhood victimizations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 309-323.
Rosen, L. N. & Martin, L. (1998). Long-term effects of childhood maltreatment history on gender-related personality characteristics. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 197-211.
Schacht, A. J., Kerlinsky, D., & Carlson, C. (1990). Group therapy with sexually abused boys: Leadership, projective identification, and countertransference issues. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 40, 401-417.
Siegel, J. M., Sorenson, S. B., Golding, J. M., Burman, M. A, & Stein, J. A. (1987). The prevalence of childhood sexual assault: The Los Angeles epidemiology catchment area project. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 1141-1153.
Summit, R. C. (1983). The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. Child Abuse & Neglect, 7, 133-146.
Urquiza, A. & Capra, M. (1990). The impact of sexual abuse: Initial and long-term effects. In M. Hunter (Ed.) The sexually abused male: Prevalence, impact, and treatment. Vol. 1. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Urquiza, A. & Keating, L. M. (1990). The prevalence of sexual victimization of males. In M. Hunter (Ed.), The sexually abused male: Prevalence, impact, and treatment. Vol. 1. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Violato, C. & Genuis, M. (1993). Problems in research in male child sexual abuse: A review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 2, 33-54.
Watkins, B., & Bentovim, A. (1992). The sexual abuse of male children and adolescents: A review of current research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 197-248.
Young, R. E. (1994). Comparison of the effects of sexual abuse on male and female latency-aged children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 291-306.